Research is a process which involves a lot of thinking, planning and writing. It is advisable to think about topics that interest you at the beginning of your program. You must also find a faculty member who can serve as your adviser and help you choose the committee members.
In general, the first three chapters of your proposal are the Introduction, Literature Review and Methodology. Take note of the following verb tenses when writing your chapters:
|Introduction||Chapter 1||Simple present and future tense|
|Literature Review||Chapter 2||Present but mostly past|
Present but mostly future
Your advisor is your ally. In order to obtain enough support from your advisor and your thesis committee members, you have to show that you have done your work well; therefore, you need to be prepared before a proposal meeting. It can take several meetings before you are ready to defend your proposal. Thesis research is directed research. Your advisor must give you advice, and you must do the work. When your proposal is approved, the process of operationalizing your method(s) to find answers to your questions begins. When it is finished, the process of rewriting the proposal can also start.
The first chapter of a proposal consists of several subheadings or sections: background, research questions, objectives, limitations, rationale, hypothesis (optional), statement of the problem, and methodology. Discuss with your adviser as to which section should be omitted or added.
Subheadings and what they mean:
- Background – What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can it be observed? (Provide sufficient information for the readers to understand the topic you are researching about.)
- Statement of the Problem – What is it that we do not know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill? What needs to be improved?
- Rationale or Justification of the Study – Why is this research important? Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this?
- Research Questions – What is it that you want to find out? (a question that’s broad enough to stimulate your interest and narrow enough that you can provide a convincing answer)
- *Hypotheses – What ideas are suggested as possible explanation for the problem, situation or condition and will be proved to be correct or incorrect by the research?
- Objectives – What steps will the researcher take to try and fill this gap or improve the situation? (Relate them to the research problem.)
Break down a general objective into minor, connected parts (specific objectives). Specific objectives should systematically address the different research questions, and specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.
- *Scope of the Study – Is the study limited to a specific geographical area or people, or to only certain aspects of the situation? Is there any aspect of the problem the researcher will not discuss?
- *Limitation of the Study – Is there any factor, condition or circumstances that will prevent the researcher from achieving all his/her objectives?
- Assumptions – In considering the methods, model, formulation or approach, are there important conditions or states that the researcher takes to be true?
- Conceptual Framework – sometimes referred to as “theoretical framework”; presents your ideas in a model or illustration of what you intend to investigate and some theories related to it. The research problem is a part of the conceptual framework that you will build based on the existing theories and research.
*The sections, Scope of the Study and Limitation of the Study, can be combined in one section to form the “Scope and Limitation of the Study”. When writing the remaining chapters of the thesis, the Limitation of the Study should be included in Chapter 3 as part of the Methodology.
*Some proposals do not need hypotheses.
Below are some suggested steps for writing the first chapter or Introduction.
1. Think of topics that interest you. Discuss your topics with your adviser before choosing the most interesting and practical one.
2. You have to search for more information first in order to understand what has been studied about the subject or your topic of interest.
3. Define a research problem.
4. Before you can formulate or define the appropriate research questions, you need to be familiar with your topic and current trends/research advances on the topic. A pilot study or feasibility study can be done before the actual research process.
5. Research questions should be developed keeping in mind time constraints—can these be answered by only one study or several studies?
Usually in qualitative approaches, research questions are formulated, instead of a hypothesis/hypotheses. Qualitative research starts an investigation with a concept.
Quantitative research approaches use the hypothesis as the frame for the methodology. Here, you will have an appropriate framework and variables considered.
In both approaches, the main research question is the basis for the hypotheses and objectives of the research.
6. Hypotheses can be developed from the research questions. Designing a hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study.
7. The development of the research objective can be done after the development of the research questions or hypothesis.
8. Do not forget to CITE current or relevant work of other authors and try to use the different techniques in incorporating other authors’ ideas in your writing; summarizing, paraphrasing and directly quoting the source. This should be applied all throughout your paper. See Citations and References – The APA Style Guide for a guide to acknowledging the works of other authors when incorporating their ideas into your writing.